Nobody likes talking about using the bathroom, except maybe my two adolescent sons. But for wheelchair users planning trips involving flights, the ability (or lack thereof) to use an airplane bathroom (a.k.a. lavatory) can make or break their travel plans. While this post is intended for wheelchair users who haven’t flown yet as such, I consider myself a very seasoned traveler and *I* definitely learned something. Here’s a guide in Q&A format to airplane bathrooms to help you determine how they fit (or don’t fit) into your travel plans.
What does an airplane bathroom look like?
The first thing you will notice about airplane lavatories is that they are small. Very, very small. And in order to fit more passengers on planes, they are getting even smaller. On some of the newer planes flown by American, Delta, and United, the bathrooms in coach are just 24 inches wide. Somehow in that space, they managed to contain a toilet, a tiny sink, a mirror, and a small cabinet that contains toilet paper and paper towels. Some of these bathrooms contain changing tables for infants as well, if you can believe that. All the doors for airplane lavatories are bifold, meaning they fold in half and slide open and shut, with the fold going inwards towards the bathroom.
Does an airplane bathroom work differently than a regular bathroom?
Yes. Regular bathrooms use gravity and siphon action to empty a toilet bowl, as well as water in a sink. You can’t do that in an airplane because of all the motion. Airplane toilets use an active vacuum instead. When you flush, it opens the valve in the sewer line, and the vacuum in the line sucks the contents out of the bowl and into a tank. This requires very little water or sanitizing liquid to clean the bowl for the next person. When you wash your hands in the sink, you will notice that the water does not freely go down the drain. The bowl will fill with the water you have used, and then you have to lift up the stopper to let the vacuum empty the contents.
Where can I find the bathroom on an airplane?
It totally depends on the type and size of the plane. On North American aircraft, the normally accepted minimum ratio of lavatories to passengers is approximately one bathroom for every 50 passengers. However, in premium and business cabins, passengers may have access to multiple lavatories reserved primarily for their use. Many of the larger long-haul airlines choose to equip their aircraft with the larger lavatories in the upper class cabins. Smaller commuter planes and regional aircraft designed for very short flights may not have bathrooms at all. So depending on the layout of the airplane, you may have only one lavatory in the rear, a pair in the front and in the rear, or a third pair in the middle of the aircraft, sometimes more if it is a long-haul wide-bodied jet.
Are airplane bathrooms wheelchair accessible?
New- construction wide-body aircraft with two aisles are required to have at least one supposedly accessible airplane bathroom. However, the level of accessibility for these lavatories is not what you would expect in a bathroom on land. Generally speaking, they open the doors of two regular airplane bathrooms and combine them into one space. The grab bars are often not in a convenient spot, and the space is still small and difficult to maneuver. However, there is more space for a partner or caregiver to assist a wheelchair user in transferring to the toilet. There is also more space for the aisle wheelchair to actually enter the bathroom space.
Why aren’t there more wheelchair accessible airplane bathrooms?
Money, plain and simple. The airline industry says that it is not economically feasible for them to retrofit existing aircraft with accessible toilets. Ultimately, by making their toilets bigger, it takes away from the space where a paying passenger could sit.
Can I use my walker or cane to get to the bathroom?
You can certainly use a cane, but there is no way that a standard walker would fit in the aisle of an airplane. Aircraft aisles are typically only 18 inches wide. Also, only folding walkers can be stored inside the cabin of an aircraft, and there really is no room to take them out and use them inside the cabin. Rollators usually have to be checked at the door of the plane like a stroller.
How do I get to the airplane bathroom if I can’t walk?
Virtually all wide-body jets for international flights have an onboard aisle wheelchair. These are folding wheelchairs that are tiny, and usually have a seat and back made out of a flimsy synthetic material. Some have velcro straps and some don’t. The quality of the footrests on these chairs also varies. However, these are your only options for getting wheeled to the airplane bathroom if you can’t walk. Flight attendants can help you transfer to the aisle chair as best they can, but you need to have enough upper body control to maintain upright posture in the chair. Flight attendants will then wheel you to and from the lavatory.
Do all airplanes have an on-board aisle chair?
No, but you can request that one be put on your flight. Under the Air Carrier Access Act (ACAA), for domestic flights within the United States on single-aisle narrow-body jets, you can contact your airline and request that an onboard aisle chair be placed on your flight. Some airlines, like the new Southwest jets and JetBlue, already have them as standard practice, which I love. I would definitely give the airline at least 48 hours notice that you require this. Many customer service representatives and gate agents don’t know about this requirement, and may confuse an aisle seat with an aisle chair. Make sure you are very clear that you will need an onboard wheelchair to help you specifically get to the bathroom.
Can I use an airplane bathroom if I can’t stand or self-transfer?
The only way you could do so is if you were on an aircraft with an accessible toilet where there is enough room for a partner or caregiver to help you transfer. If you are on an airplane with only a regular-sized lavatory, there is no way you could transfer if you need assistance.
Will I have trouble with the bathroom if I’m a large person?
Probably. I am 5’6″ tall, but I’m very thin and only weigh 115 pounds., and I have trouble maneuvering from the aisle chair onto the toilet in a regular sized airplane lavatory. If you are particularly large, you may not even be able to use the aisle chair to get to the airplane bathroom. They are tiny and very uncomfortable, as the metal frame tends to dig. Even if you can stand up and self transfer, particularly large people will have a difficult time maneuvering in a standard sized airplane bathroom.
Can my partner or caregiver assist me in the bathroom?
Yes, but only if it is a designated accessible toilet on a larger wide-body aircraft.
Can a flight attendant help me get to the airplane bathroom?
Flight attendants can provide assistance by pushing you in the on board aisle chair to and from the lavatory. Many times they will offer to help by providing a steadying arm for the elderly to walk just a few steps to the bathroom. However, they can in no way physically fully support you or carry you.
Can a flight attendant help me in the bathroom?
No. And once again for the people in the back, NOOOOOOOO.
What are my options if I can’t use an airplane bathroom?
There are several options, and unfortunately, none of them are pleasant. One is to avoid the need to use the bathroom by restricting your food and liquid intake for many hours prior to your flight. Another is to stick to short flights only. Men have it easier in that they can sometimes urinate into a bottle created for this purpose, under a blanket to be more discreet. Some wheelchair users can use a catheter with a leg bag. Others have chosen to use undergarments like Depends.